Sūn Sīmiǎo (孫思邈) is one of the best known of ancient Chinese doctors. According historians Sūn Sīmiǎo lived between 581-682. Legends however tell that he lived more than 140 years and his body did not decay after his death. When he was buried his body was light as plain clothes. He, like many other great doctors, was also alchemist and scholar of classical Daoist scriptures like Dàodéjīng (道德經) and Yìjīng (易經).
Today every student of Chinese medicine knows his name and at least two of his works – Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand in Gold (千金要方 Qiānjīn Yàofāng) and A Supplement to Prescriptions Worth a Thousand in Gold (千金翼方 Qiānjīn Yìfāng). These works are both huge 30 volume writings combining knowledge from many classics. They are still in use today. The influences of Buddhist medicine coming from India during early Tang-dynasty are also visible in these works and his other writings. The knowledge Sūn Sīmiǎo collected was so vast and important that he became known as King of medicines (Yàowáng 藥王) and temples were later built in his honour.
Like many other great scholar doctors he also wrote about alchemy and ways of preserving life. One of these writings is Inscription of Preserving Shén and refining Qì (Cúnshén liànqì míng – 存神錬氣銘) which is found in Daoist Canon (DZ 834). Today many scholars and doctors consider these texts as mere wishful thinking. Regardless the truth studying them give us great deal of information about the philosophy and world view of the most skilled doctors in past and helps us to understand and follow their thinking through the classics.
Note: While reading the following translation please bear in mind that the Heart also means Mind, Shén is usually translated as spirit and Líng is could be roughly translated as the Great Spirit or Numinous.
Human embodiment is dwelling place of Shén and Qì
If Shén and Qì are stored the embodiment is tranquil, strong and healthy
If Shén and Qì disperse the embodiment dies
If one desires to support the embodiment [one must] first calm Shén and Qì
The Qì is mother of Shén, Shén is the child of Qì
If Shén and Qì are whole the life is long and there is no death
If one desires to calm Shén one must refine Yuánqì
[When] Qì is within embodiment
The Shén is peacefully in Qìhǎi
[When] Qìhǎi is full and overflowing
The Heart is calm and Shén is settled
If [Shén] is settled and not dispersing
The embodiment and Heart are concentrated and tranquil
Tranquility peaks to being settled completely1
The embodiment is maintained years everlasting
Always dwelling at the source of Dao and one naturally becomes a Saint
1. (定倶 term comes from Buddhist sources and is usually translated as Samadhi)
Qì is connected to condition of Shén, Shén is connected to wisdom and destiny (Mìng)
Destiny residing within [constantly] maintained embodiment unites with True nature
[Thus one obtains] age equal to Sun and Moon and Dao is obtained
According the inscriptions of refining Qì if one wishes to learn this technique
First the cereals must be renounced and Heart must be placed to Qìhǎi
Store Shén in Dāntián and collect the Heart to tranquillize [its] anxieties
When Qìhǎi is whole one is naturally satisfied
In concentrated Heart cultivation 100 days [bring] small accomplishments
Three years [bring] great accomplishments
First one enters five states [of mind] and then one can go through seven stages
Shén and Líng transform and change exiting and submerging freely
Steep cliffs or thousands miles, leave or staying without hindrances
If Qì does not disperse Qìhǎi fills to overflowing
[When] Shén is still in Dāntián, the embodiment and Heart are always constant
Naturally returns the [youthfulness of] colors to facial features and stature
The embodiment changes to immortal
The hidden and obvious [reveal their] natural origins
One understands hundreds of transformations of Líng
This is called Passing through the world
[One is then] entitled as True person (Zhēnrén)
Heaven and Earth are like his years, sun and moon like his lifespan
With this way one does not [need to] swallowing Qì or saliva nor is it exhausting or painful
[When] needs to eat one just eats, [when] requires rest one sets to rest
Naturally and spontaneously without blocking and without obstacles
Five states and seven stages [all happen by] entering the womb and fixing the contemplation
Student of Dao starts with five states
1. State: Heart has lots of movement and peace is minimal
[In mind] thoughts, green colours and 10 000 things
Conditions come and go without continuity
Jealous, anxious, considering and measuring like a wild horse is the usual human Heart
2. State: Heart has very little peacefulness but lot of movement
[When] regulating movement one enters to peace but Heart disperses and escapes often
[Mind] is difficult to control or suppress and direct it to [this] method
Here the pursuit for Dao begins
3. State: The Heart moves and is still equally
Heart is peaceful and seem directed
Heart in general is peaceful and scattered in equal amounts
[One is able to ] use Heart for the method
Gradually consciousness adjusts and becomes skilled [using the method]
4. State: Heart has lots of peace and little movement
The Heart is collected and more and more skilled in [technique]
The movement is right away directed with it
One is truly focused to the present
If [concentration is momentarily] lost then [focus is] immediately obtained
5. State: The Heart has unified direction and is pure and calm
Then doing is not doing and [even] emotional blows don’t move
[Dān]tián has gathered Heart deeply and steadfastly the scattered has made to set
This already completed ones place is clear and one enters to the seven stages
Making use of [method] one naturally obtains [Dao] without obstructions!
1. Stage: Old diseases dissolve
The embodiment becomes light and the Heart joyful
[When] Inside man the Heart is meditative Shén is tranquil and Qì is peacful
Four big (elements) are married and six passions are in profound peace
The Heart is peacefully suspended [over] circumstances and embraces unity and protects the center
Joyfully happy about every new day
This is called “Obtaining Dao”
2. Stage: Crossing over normal limits
One’s appearance returns to younger outlook, form is joyous and Heart is in peace
One opens to Líng and has [all] penetrating vision
Change [your] residence, leave [your] country, select place and settle down
Associates and relative who [once] had known one, no longer recognize him
3. Stage: Prolonging life years to thousand
This is called immortality
Traveling all famous mountains, flying and moving freely
Azure servants follow as guardians, jade women are singing praises
Rising and walking vaporous rosy clouds, green mists offer its support
4. Stage: Refining the embodiment to Qì
Qì revolves [ones] embodiment with light [and one] is called True Human (Zhēnrén)
Appearing and disappearing (living and dying) freely
Brightness and light naturally shines and day and night are constantly illuminated
One can travel all caves and palaces or attend all immortals immediately
5. Stage: Refining Qì to become Shén
One is called Spirit-human (Shénrén)
Transforming and going freely and doing and using without exhaustion
One has power to move Qián and Kūn (Heaven and Earth)
Move mountains or empty the seas
6. Stage: Refine Shén and uniting it with color (substances creating the body)
[One] is called Perfected man (Zhìrén)
[Being] Shén already one connects to Líng
Color and form are not fixed
They respond to moment by changing
And [one] reflects other beings with his shape and form
7. Stage: Embodiment transcends outside material
One distances oneself outside all normal order [of the world]
Together with Jade Emperor of Great Dao reside in Líng-realm
Saints and wise assemble spreading the greatest truth of Mother Nature and universal Líng
There is nothing that could not be reached
Cultivation culminates at the root of Dao
10 000 ways all end here and this is called The Ultimate
People of this age study Dao less [each] day and cannot [obtain even] the first stage
How could they obtain universal Líng?
Ruled with maintaining their stupidity and sentimentality
Only preserving and holding on to their filth and material [wealth]
Four seasons turn and change, their shapes distort and color (body) grows weak
Their substance declines and [they] return to the emptiness
To call this obtaining Dao is absurd!
These Daoist techniques of embryo-breathing and fixed contemplation keep Shén and halt form
[These] were transmitted orally and not written in language
Having the virtue to meet the Perfected man and this teaching
[One must] be very precise and throughout to keep the idea
These must be learnt without doubts.
Man worthy of attainment will meet this Saint
I had the great honor of being invited to China for the International Taoism Forum held during 22-25.10.2011. The forum was organized by Hunan Organizing Committee of International Taoist Forum and sponsored by Chinese Taoist Association, China Religious Culture Communication Association, Hong Kong Taoist Association, Macao Taoist Association and Chinese Taoist Society (Taipei, Taiwan)
The forum took place in China, Hunnan province, at Nanyue Hengshan mountain (南岳衡山). The mountain area was extremely beautiful. About 300 invited guests were present. The guests were Taoist leaders, internationally recognized experts and scholars, and personalities from political, economic and cultural circles. Most of the invited people were coming from China, Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore. About 20 people were from Europe. There were also people from Australia, USA, Canada and Mexico. The media was also following the forum and the reporters from newspapers and staff from TV-stations were present.
The forum itself had been organized with utmost care and consideration. There were guides and transportation between sites. The language barriers were overcome with simultaneous translations to English (and to Chinese when the speakers were not native Chinese speakers). The accommodation was in very high class hotels like five-star Changde Cohere Hotel. At the hotel there were choice between Western and Chinese food. I chose to eat Chinese food. The food was exquisite. (I miss it already). And as a foreign guest I had the luxury of having very friendly and talented personal guide arranged to help and escort me around. She informed me about everything I wished to know and organized the transportation to seminars I wished to attend.
The topics of the forums were:
The focus of discussions and presentations were mostly about Taoism and its meaning for modern world and how the ancient Taoist ideas, values and practices might benefit the modern society and ease the crisis that the whole world is currently facing. The future of the planet looks disastrous if something is not done. The forum was intended to promote Taoism and to introduce ideas for the change needed.
In the presentations the Taoist ideals of simplicity of life and quieting the over fast pace of living was seen as balancing factor for consumerism and industry. The caring of nature and the fundamental Taoist conception that the humans being are part of the nature is more and more important in modern life. Without these ideals the ever growing industrial development, expanding cities and ever growing capitalism with lack of morals will soon use up and destroy the natural resources and balance. As the people will have hard time finding balance between the desire for more luxurious life style and simplicity needed to conserve new ways of more fulfilling and satisfying lifestyle must be found. The advancements in science and ecological fields was seen as one way of creating both success and preserving the nature.
The ideal of tolerance was clearly apparent in speeches. The dialogue between East and West and between different religions was greatly encouraged. The utilization of new scientific discoveries were cherished. Instead of blaming or judging there was hope for new ways of co-operation and returning to ancient values of honoring the nature.
The essence of Taoism is harmony, purity and simplicity. The harmony between the humans and the nature is essential for well-being for humans and nature. The harmony in society is essential for success of its members and the harmony within an individual can bring spiritual and physical well-being.
The forum also held great promise for everyone interested in Chinese Medicine or should I say in this content Taoist medicine. There were many people having great concern about the loss of roots in constant modernization of Chinese medicine. The attendees, as one can guess, were well aware of broadness of the ancient philosophy and knew the Taoist basis of Chinese medicine. During the forum I spoke with many people interested in making these ancient roots more available and known. Many researcher, Taoist priests and Chinese medicine professionals were interested in translating and making public the ancient Taoist classics containing ancient medical knowledge. Many wanted include ancient classics to teaching of Chinese medicine. The promotion of ancient classics, Taoist, Buddhist and medical writings was seen as the way to help the people truly to understand the Chinese medicine. It will contribute overall quality of practice of Chinese medicine everywhere.
If we together can initiate the changes that were brought up in the discussions the Chinese medicine will in the future see more translations, publication of classics in many languages and better availability of medical classics that western people have not seen before. Many classics and other writings are currently only available in the temples but they can be made available also in electronic forms. This is great news for every researcher, translator and members of general public interested in Taoism and Chinese/Taoist medicine.
The diaphragm and its constriction caught my attention some years ago as I noticed that most of the patients coming to the “infertility” treatments had their diaphragm constricted, coldness of abdomen, cold womb and many of them had acid reflux.
Physically the diaphragm is a sheet of muscle separating thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity. The diaphragm plays important role in respiration, and is also involved in vomiting, expelling feces and urine. The pressure from diaphragm helps esophageal hiatus to preventing acid reflux. The muscular structure is also connected to ligaments of vertebral column. The diaphragm is innervated by phrenic nerve formed from nerves coming from C3-C5.
In classic medical texts the problems of diaphragm are usually seen more as symptoms of disease than the source of the problem. Most of the classics speaks of heated, cold, full or distended diaphragm. The symptoms mentioned in connection are mostly of vomiting, constipation/diarrhea, food retention, qì rebellion and breathing difficulties.
However the problem is much deeper. For example physician named Yùchāng (喻昌) wrote in 1645 in Yùyìcǎo (寓意草) how the dàlùo of Stomach and the qì of Lung go through the diaphragm. Because of moving and transformations of jīng, blood and qì the constricted diaphragm is seen to cause serious problems as it is “Not only the womens disease but also the child [in womb and while breatfeeding] loses it nourishment”.
When we look at the channel pathways we can see something very interesting:
There are also numerous other connections from different branches of the main channels. And as the diaphragm is a muscle it is very important to note that the Stomach, Spleen, Heart and Xīnbāo muscle channels all connect to the diaphragm.
From this it becomes clearly understandable why the diaphragm plays such important role upon all the ascending and descending within the energy system.
The diaphragm in Chinese language is 膈 (gě). Today the character for diaphragm is written with flesh radical (月 + 鬲) and the whole character is translated as diaphragm. The older form of character omits the flesh radical and the simple 鬲 translates as iron cauldron or earthen pot. This older name reveals much clearly the function of the whole diaphragm.
All the six fǔ-organs and three of the five zàng-organs reside below the diaphragm. Only the Heart and Lungs reside above it. The diaphragm stands between the upper and lower, separating them. The qì and jīng are below and the source of blood (Heart) is above. Water (Kǎn) below and Fire (Lí) above. In cultivation practices the diaphragm is very important as it controls the rising and descending of fire and water. It mixes the yuan qì and post heaven qì. The earthen pot is the whole abdominal area where the cooking of alchemical herbs is done.
In inner alchemy the diaphragm is connected to following “parts of the body”:
In emotional level the diaphragm works as an emotional shield and bridge between the unconscious and conscious emotions. It can block the emotions stored in the lower abdomen from over-flooding the Heart and consciousness. Its functioning can be easily observed in children. When the emotions are too hard to deal with the diaphragm becomes tense and whole upper stomach get tense. The sobbing, crying or vomiting are biological ways of relieving the formed tensions. Quite common result of diaphragmatic tension is digestion problems or diminished appetite. One very common manifestation of this blockage is that there is cold and possibly qì masses or even blood stagnation masses below while there are heat and fullness above manifesting as symptoms like feeling of stuffiness at the chest and throat, nausea and acid reflux.
It also seems that many common anti depression medicines block the diaphragm. This also might explain some of the most common side effects like nausea and heart-burn. Sometimes you can see how medicated bodies express strange division where rest of the body still show the emotional strain while the facial expressions seem tranquil and rationally distant. In these cases the certain caution is in place while treating the area.
One commonly used acupuncture point is called 膈俞 (Bl 17 – gěshū). In Nánjīng reads “血會鬲俞”, meaning that the Blood meets or collects in Gěshū. The point is seen as “master of blood” as the Heart above produces the blood and the liver below stores it. This point is commonly used in many Blood related diseases and it is great for moving blood and qì. Shū point are places from where channel branches to fill places/organs with qì. The great meaning of point is revealed while applying moxa here as it results in warming the whole abdomen or the cauldron for alchemical cookings.
The point lateral to Gěshū is much less used point called 膈關 (Bl 46 – Gěguān). It is a great point to open the diaphragm and open the lid upon the cauldron. This point is better for opening the diaphragm than the Gěshū.
In front we have Ren 14 Jùquè (巨闕). The name means the great gate tower. It is the mù (募) point of the Heart. It is the watchtower to protect the imperial city. At the back there is also hidden points called 巨闕俞, the shū point for this watchtower.
In emotional problems with constricted cauldron one of my favorite ways of opening the diaphragm is to first needle Gěshū and Gěguān in intention of first stirring the cauldron and opening the lid. Then using qìgōng at Jùquè to very genty open the gates to the Crimson palace of Heart.
One good point for very prolonged blockage is Ren 15 – Jiūwěi (鳩尾). Jiūwěi means Doves tail. It is also called Shéns treasury (Shénfǔ 神府). The point is yuán point for gāo (膏) and the point has a great effect to all the Zàng-organs. This point is also the lùo-point of Rènmài. The lùo merges to the diaphragm. It is said that when one descends from here he/she becomes tangled in emotions and thoughts of later heaven and when one ascends from here one returns to the Palace of Shén.
These are just a few points affecting the diaphragm. Other common points include other local points (mostly stomach and kidney channel points). Also because the fact that diaphragm is a muscle and the courses of muscle channel pathways the distal points of Spleen, Stomach, Heart and Xīnbāo channels are also effective.
It is very important to be very gentle while trying to open the diaphragm. Any tension or forcing will easily prevent the opening from happening. The opening is sometimes accompanied with involuntary laughter, crying, sobbing and/or shaking. Care must be taken that the emotions have time to settle down before leaving the patient.